George Washington to Colonel John Cadwalader, 26 December 1776

Notwithstanding the discouraging Accounts I have received from Col: Reed of what might be expected from the Operations below, I am determined, as the night is favourable, to cross the River, & make the attack upon Trenton in the Morning. If you can do nothing real, at least create as great a diversion as possible.

Read the entire letter here.

George Washington to Lafayette, 8 May 1780

The following letter, which will appear in a future volume of the Revolutionary War Series, expresses Washington’s delight to hear of Lafayette’s arrival to America.

The letter printed below is taken from the typed transcript with notes included.

Morris-town May 8th 1780.

My dr Marqs

Your welcome favour of the 27th of April came to my hands yesterday–I received it with all the joy that the sincerest friendship could dictate–and with that impatience which an ardent desire to see you could not fail to inspire.

I am sorry I do not know your rout through the State of New York, that I might, with certainty, send a small party of Horse (all I have at this place) to meet & escort you safely through the Tory settlements between this and the North River.

At all events Majr Gibbs will go as far as Pompton (where the roads unite) to meet you, & will proceed from thence as circumstances may direct, either towards Kings-ferry or New Windsor.

I most sincerely congratulate with you on your safe arrival in America & shall embrace you with all the warmth of an Affectionate friend when you come to head Qrs–where a bed is prepared for you.[1] adieu till we meet Yrs

Go: W<2n>n


1. Lafayette reached GW’s Morristown quarters on 10 May and consulted with the general until leaving for Philadelphia on 13 May (see Lafayette to the president of Congress, 16 May, and to Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, 20 May, in Lafayette Papers, 3:13, 26-29; see also GW to Lafayette, 16 and 19 May, both in DLC:GW). [back]

Major General William Heath to George Washington

The following letter, which will appear in a future volume of the Revolutionary War Series, discusses officers’ pay and mentions Lafayette’s arrival at Boston.

The letter printed below is taken from the typed transcript. Original manuscript images of Maj. General Heath’s letter to Washington at the Library of Congress: Page 1 | Page 2

Roxbury [Mass.] April 30. 1780

Dear General,

I was some time since honor’d with yours of the 28th ultimo respecting Cloathing for the recruits–and this morning with that of the 17th Instant.

Several Officers have already come from West-Point on the recruiting service and others are on the road: I wish they may be successfull–but, am at loss from the tenor of your Excellencys Letter to determine what bounty the recruits raised by this State (Massachusetts) are to receive. It seems the Continental bounty after the Act of March 1779 was to be 200 Dollars.

The General Assembly of this State on the 30th of September last passed the following Resolution vizt “Resolved that a bounty of three hundred Dollars, in addition to the bounty and subsistance money allowed by Congress, be paid to each Non-Commissioned Officer and Soldier who has or shall enlist as one of this States quota of the Continental Army during the continuance of the present War between the United States of America and Great Brittain.” This bounty appears to be intended over and above the Continental bounty and extended to all the Soldiers belonging to their quota of the Army, enlisted at any preceding period.

I purpose to morrow to lay the matter before the Assembly who it is probable may have received Some particular instructions on the Subject, or at least that they may conduct as they think proper.

On Tuesday last 2 privateers belonging to Salem (the Franklin, and Jack) Sent into that port a large letter of marque Ship having on board 1000 barrels Pork & Beef 750 barrels Flour 800 Firkins Butter and dry Goods to the amo[un]t of £15,000.

A Doctor Apedale lately come from New York to Boston, and some time before from Canada to New York, reports that before he left Canada, it was said that about 1000 Regulars and Tories, with as many Indians as could be collected and would join them, were to make an Excursion on our Frontiers on the Mowhawk river as Soon as the Season was Suitable, in two divisions, under the command of Johnson and Butler, and that Lt Colo. Stacy was held a prisoner in Canada with a view to be Exchanged for Johnson or Butler Should either of them happen to be taken: how much credit is to be given to this report your Excellency may be able best to determine.

I have the happiness to forward this by Major General Marquis de LaFayette, who arrived at Boston on the 28th Inst. where, he was received with every demonstration of Joy. I have the honor to be with the greatest respect Your Excellency’s Most obedient Servt

W. Heath

George Washington to Lafayette, 18 March 1780

The following letter, which will appear in a future volume of the Revolutionary War Series, illustrates Washington’s close bond to Lafayette and his appreciation for Lafayette’s efforts and assistance in the war.

The letter printed below is taken from the typed transcript with notes included. Original manuscript images of Washington’s letter to Lafayette at the Library of Congress: Page 1 | Page 2 | Page 3

Hd Qrs Morristown Mar. 18th 178<0>

My dear Marqs

Your polite and obliging letter of the 10th of Octr from Havre came to my hands since the begin[nin]g of this Month[1]–It filled me with a pleasure intermixed with pain–To hear that you were well–to find you breathing the same affection[at]e sentiments that ever have most conspicuously markd your conduct towards me & that you continued to deliver them with unabated attachmt contributes greatly to my happiness–On the other hand, to hear that not one of the many letters which I have written to you since you left this Continent had arrived safe was not only surprizing but mortifying,[2] notwithstanding you have the goodness to acct for it on its true principles–With much truth I can assure you, that besides the Letter which ought to have been delivered to you at Boston (containing such testimonials of your merit & services as I thought a tribute justly due from me) & which was dispatched soon after it returned to me,[3] I wrote you two or three times between that and the openin[g] of the Campaign in June.[4] In the Month of July I wrote you a long letter from New Windsor.[5] About the first of Septr I addressed you again–the last of the same Month, after I had been favoured with yr affectionate letter by the Chevr de la Luzerne, I wrote you a very long letter to go by Monsr Gerard; & some time in October I again wrote to you by Monsr de la Colombe, Copys of all which, to the best of my recollection, have been duely forwarded;[6] it is a little unfortunate then that out of the whole I should not be able to get one of them safe.

I have been thus particular My dear friend that in case there should be the least suspicion of my want of friendship or want of attention, it may be totally removed; as it is my earnest wish to convince you by every testimony that an affectionate regard can dictate, of my sincere attachment to your person–and fortunes.

For the copy of your letter to Congress, and the several pieces of intelligence which you did me the favor to transmit, you will be pleased to accept my warmest thanks.[7] our eyes are now turned to Europe–the manœuvres of the field, long ‘ere this, must have yielded to those of the cabinet, & I hope G. Britn will be as much foiled in her management of the latter as she has been in the former–her having formed no alliances, nor been able to contract for more forei[g]n troops, exhibits interesting proofs of it; which are not a little enlivened by the dispositions of the People of Ireland; who feel the importance of a critical moment to shake off those badges of Slavery they have so long worn.[8]

Since my last, a Detachment (if it can be called a detachment where the Commander in chief of an army is) consisting of the Gren[adie]rs & light Infantry & some other chosen corps–amounting in the whole to between five & 6000 Men–embarkd for Georgia–The 26th of Decr they left Sandy hook under Convoy of 5 Ships of the line & Several frigates commanded by Admiral Arbuthnot. Gener[a]l Clinton & Lord Cornwallis went with them.[9] We have accts that part of this fleet had arrived at Savanna (in Georgia)–that it suffered very considerably in the stormy weather that followed their Sailing–in which there is good reason to believe that most of their Horses were thrown overboard, & that some of their ships foundered. indeed we are not without reports that many of the Transports were driven to the West Indies; how far these accts are to be credited I shall not unde[r]take to determine, but certain it is, the fleet has been much dispersed & their operations considerably delayed, if not deranged, by the tempestuous weather they had to encounter during the whole month of January.[10] The enemy, that they might bend their operations more forceably to the Southward, & at the sametime leave New York & its dependancies sufficiently garrisoned have withdrawn their troops from Rhode Island.[11]

As the enemys intentions of operating in the Southern States began to unfo I began to detach Troops to their aid–accordingly in Novr the North Carolina Brigad[e] took up its March for Charles-town,[12] and were followed abt the middle of Decr by the Troops of Virginia;[13] but the extreme cold–the deep Snows–& other impediments have retarded the progress of their March very considerable–The oldest people now living in this Country do not remember so hard a Winter as the one we are now emerging from. In a word, the severity of the frost exceeded anything of the kind that had ever been experienced in this climate before.[14] I beg leave to make a tender of my best respects to Madm La Fayette, & to offer fresh assurances, of being with sentiments of great & sincere friendship–My dear Marqs Yr Most Obed. & Affect.

Go: Washington


1. GW is referring to Lafayette’s letter to him of 7 Oct. 1779. [back]

2. Lafayette had departed Boston on 11 Jan. 1779 and arrived in France on 6 Feb. (see GW to Benjamin Franklin, 28 Dec. 1778, and n.1 to that document). [back]

3. See GW to Lafayette, 29 Dec. 1778. [back]

4. GW is alluding to his letters to Lafayette of 8-10 and 27 March 1779. [back]

5. See GW to Lafayette, 4 July; see also GW to Conrad-Alexandre Gérard, 5 July, and Gérard to GW, 16 July. [back]

6. See GW to Lafayette, 12 and 30 Sept. and 20 Oct.; see also Lafayette to GW, 12-13 June. [back]

7. For Lafayette’s letter to the president of Congress dated 12-13 June, see the Frenchman’s letter to GW, also 12-13 June, n.2. In this letter to GW, Lafayette mentioned plans for an expedition to Ireland and advised less contentiousness among American diplomatic personnel in Europe (see notes 4 and 7). [back]

8. For unrest in Ireland and GW’s awareness of that development, see the postscript of his letter to William Livingston of 10 March and the general orders for 16 March; see also William Gordon to GW, 29 Feb.-1 March, and GW to Gordon, 3 May. [back]

9. For an overview of the British expedition from New York City to Charleston, S.C., see Anthony Wayne to GW, 26 Dec., source note. [back]

10. For British accounts of the difficult winter voyage southwards, see Benjamin Lincoln to GW, 11-12 Feb. 1780, n.4; see also Benedict Arnold to GW, 6 March. [back]

11. The British evacuated Rhode Island on 25 Oct. 1779 (see GW to Duportail and Alexander Hamilton, 30 Oct., and notes 1 and 2 to that document). [back]

12. See GW to Thomas Clark, 19 Nov., and notes 2 and 4 to that document; see also Samuel Huntington to GW, 11 Nov., and n.3, and GW to Huntington, 20 November. [back]

13. For GW’s decision to send the Virginia line to the southern department, see his letter to Huntington, 29 Nov., and the source note to that document. [back]

14. GW kept a record of the severe winter weather beginning on 1 Jan. 1780 (see Diaries, 3:342-49). [back]

Lafayette to George Washington, 27 April 1780

Lafayette, carrying news of France’s willingness to aid the American effort in the war, announces his arrival to America and urgent wish to speak with Washington in person.

The following letter, which will appear in a future volume of the Revolutionary War Series, is taken from the typed transcript with notes included. A finding aid for this document is available at the Lafayette College.

At the Entrance of Boston harbour 27th April 1780

here I am, My dear General, and in the Mist of the joy I feel in finding Myself again one of your loving Soldiers I take But the time of telling you that I Came from france on Board of a fregatt Which the king Gave me for my passage[1]–I have affairs of the utmost importance that I should at first Communicate to You alone–in Case my Letter finds you Any where this side of philadelphia, I Beg You will wait for me, and do Assure You A Great public Good May derive from it[2]–to Morrow we go up to the town,[3] and the day after I’ll Set off in My usual way to join My Belov’d and Respected friend and general. Adieu, My dear General, You will Easily know the hand of Your Young Soldier[4]


My Compliments to the family.[5]


1. Lafayette had sailed from France aboard the L’Hermione. Inclement weather and damage to the ship delayed his departure until 20 March (see Lafayette to his wife, 18 March, and to Benjamin Franklin, 20 March, in Lafayette Papers, 2:379-80). [back]

2. Lafayette carried instructions from Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, French secretary of state for foreign affairs, dated 5 March. These instructions directed Lafayette to “hasten to join General Washington. He will inform him confidentially that the king, wishing to give the United States a new testimony of his affection and his concern for their security, has resolved to send to their aid six ships of the line and 6,000 regular infantry troops at the onset of spring.

“The convoy is ordered to land at Rhode Island, if there is no obstacle, in order to be better able to assist the American army and to join it if General Washington considers it necessary. . . .

“The corps of French troops will be purely auxiliary, and in this capacity it will act only under General Washington’s orders. The French land general will take orders from the American commanding general for everything that does not relate to the internal regulation of his corps, which on the whole is to retain its system of justice and govern itself by the laws of its country. The naval general will be enjoined to support with all his power all operations in which his cooperation is required. It is understood that the Americans will be concerned to plan and consult with him and to listen to objections that he might make to them.

“Since operations must depend upon circumstances and local possibilities, we do not propose any. It is for General Washington and the council of war to decide which operations will be most useful. All the king wishes is that the troops he sends to the assistance of his allies, the United States, cooperate effectually to deliver them once and for all from the yoke and tyranny of the English. His Majesty expects that the reciprocal attention that friends owe each other will assure that General Washington and the American general officers see that the officers and the French troops enjoy all the amenities that are consistent with the good of the service.

“It is indispensable that General Washington advise on the means to facilitate the subsistence of the French troops. For this purpose, he must have provisions assembled in advance for the crews and the troops and suitable places prepared to receive the sick at the place where he expects the squadron to land and the troops to disembark. In short, he must take the necessary precautions so that the corps of French troops can be assured of its subsistence and at a reasonable price.

“When M. le Marquis de Lafayette has agreed with General Washington on all the measures to take with respect to the arrival of the corps of French troops and to the security of their disembarkation, he will go to Congress; but first he will decide with the American general to what extent he is to reveal to Congress the secret of our arrangements.

“When he has arrived in Philadelphia, M. le Marquis de Lafayette will first of all see M. le Chevalier de La Luzerne; he will communicate to him his instructions and any additional instructions that may be given to him; he will confide to him everything that has passed between him and General Washington and will take no step without the concurrence and cooperation of the king’s minister, by whose counsels he should guide himself. His Majesty honors his minister with his esteem and wishes him to have a part in everything that needs to be arranged with the United States. . . .

“If the land operations do not require the support of the squadron, it will be free to initiate cruises, at whatever distance from the coasts the commander judges proper to inflict the greatest possible harm on the enemy. He will be especially ordered not to go too far off and not to decide upon any course except in concert with and with the consent of the land generals” (Lafayette Papers, 2:364-68; see also GW’s draft letter to Samuel Huntington, 13 March, DLC:GW). [back]

3. For Lafayette’s arrival in Boston on 28 April, see William Heath to GW, 30 April. [back]

4. GW received this letter on 7 May and replied to Lafayette on the next day. [back]

5. Lafayette is referring to GW’s aides-de-camp and secretaries. [back]