Topic: George Washington

A “New” Samuel Culper Letter

Jeffrey L. Zvengrowski, Assistant Editor
June 8, 2018

One of the most enjoyable aspects of documentary editing at The Washington Papers is making annotated transcriptions of relatively inscrutable manuscripts readily available, manuscripts like spy letters with incomplete decryptions. On Sept. 9, 1780, Maj. Benjamin Tallmadge (alias John Bolton) wrote Gen. George Washington from North Castle, N.Y., and forwarded two letters addressed to him that he had received from Abraham Woodhull (alias Samuel Culper), a farmer and spy on British-controlled Long Island, New York. A preliminary transcription of Tallmadge’s letter to Washington, dated September 9, can be found on Founders Online. No transcription, however, is currently available of the enclosed Woodhull letters, which are among Washington’s papers at the Library of Congress.1 Complete transcriptions of the Woodhull letters Tallmadge sent Washington on Sept. 9, 1780 will be presented in volume 28 of The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series. An initial transcription of the principal Woodhull letter with sketch annotation follows:


Samuel Culper to John Bolton

729 <Setauket>2—6173 <Sepr>–eth <1>–1780


When C. Jurs last 130 <dispatch> came to hand4 He directd me to wait on him at Dilcgq [Jerico] yesterday5 But my present state would not admit6—Therefore Sent the 174 <Express> which handed him your inclosed7—But he hath returnd without any answer—The reason is he had not the counterpt with him8—And in regard of the state of affairs in general He assured the 174 <Express> they remaned as heretofore or as when wrote you last9 nothing new every-thing appeared to be at a Stand, And the Enemy much embarssed expecting an attack10—I am sorry you have to wait so long for an answer, that Judge is of importance. But it must Still unavoidably be lenghtend untill the—enth <10th>—As C. Jur Said he could not be in 727 <New york> before the O <8th>.

Since my last the Infantry have marchd to Huntington and incamped there, Fannings Regt to Loyds Neck, Simcoes Rangers to Oyster bay11—And thers in Setauket the 17 Regt Dragins, Some Huzzars Some Rangers—About 20 Waggons 300 Horses 250 Men 220 [go] Mounted—They are encamped round about Capt. Nathan Woodhulls House12 and Parsons Lyons’13 The former is the Coll Quarters The officers mostly lodge in Camp—at night Thers every appearance of there continueing here Some time And they appear quite easy and off their guard—Am fully of an Oppinion that 500 good Men would make Prisoners of them all, if Secretly conducted on your Shore as well as here—If you intend to attack—direct 725 <Brewster>14 to cross the night before, And will meet him and further advise at all hazzards—Aiqlai Bqyim [George Howel] of Southhampton is now on your Shore, And positively an 23 <Agent> for the 178 <Enemy>,15 he hath bene a long time serviceable in that way, And this is his Second embassy,16 I know it to be true, And have lately had a perfect knowledge of his conduct for this three years past—And have bene Solicited by his friend as an assistant—A Little time Past a Boat from New Haven, Loaded with Provisions met a number of Refugees here—one of the Mens Names was Trowbridge[17] an intimate acquaintance of John Clark18—And you may depend the refugees land on your Shore and hide their boats—The other day I Saw a man that had the appearance of a Gentleman, Told me had had bene three weeks conceald in Middletown and Heartford—the former being his Native Place—but could not find out his Name—He Told me had left 20 od Thousand Pounds of Counterfeit Money—of your late emetions in the hands of the Torys—to Pay their Taxes with19—youll Doubtless take Some notice of this information—And anxiously wait for the arival of our deliverers And am Sincerly your

Saml Culper

N.B. The Enemy are now collecting all the forage they Possibly can the whole will be very little, certainly not half enough for the winter.20


DLC:GW. Tilghman penned decryptions above the line that are included in angle brackets. Additional decryptions are included in square brackets.


Courtesy of the Library of Congress.


1. For quotes from and summaries of these letters, see A Calendar of Washington Manuscripts in the Library of Congress, ed. Herbert Friedenwald (Washington, D.C., 1901), 160, and Brian Kilmeade and Don Yaeger, George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spy Ring that Saved the American Revolution (New York, 2014), 173–74.

2. Setauket is about sixty miles east of New York City on Long Island.

3. “617” deciphers as August.

Washington’s aide-de-camp Tench Tilghman wrote “Augt” above “617” and struck it out. He then wrote “Sepr” between “Augt” and “617.” For the code employed in Culper’s letter, see Tallmadge to GW, 25 July, 1779, and n.2 to that document, in vol. 21 of The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series.

4. Robert Townsend (alias Samuel Culper, Jr.) operated in British-controlled New York City as part of Tallmadge’s New York spy network. His dispatch has not been identified.

5. Jericho, N.Y., is on Long Island about half-way between New York City and Setauket.

6. For Woodhull’s recent ill health, see Culper to Bolton, 27 Aug., enclosed in Tallmadge to Washington, 28 Aug., DLC:GW.

7. Tallmadge presumably enclosed a letter he wrote for Townsend in a letter he wrote for Woodhull, neither of which has been identified.

8. Woodhull is referring to “counterpart,” a liquid to reveal invisible ink.

9. Tallmadge quoted part of a letter Townsend wrote him from New York City on 23 Aug. in his letter to GW dated 28 August.

10. Washington had recently sent a force to Bergen Point, N.J., to collect forage and other provisions opposite New York City (see Washington to Samuel Huntington, 24 Aug., U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Papers of the Continental Congress, item 152).

11. Huntington, Lloyd Neck, and Oyster Bay are Long Island locations between New York City and Setauket.

12. Woodhull’s uncle Nathan was a captain of Long Island Loyalist militia but also part of Tallmadge’s spy network (see Alexander Rose, Washington’s Spies: The Story of America’s First Spy Ring [New York, 2006], 173–74).

13. James Lyon was an Anglican reverend and Long Island Loyalist leader (see Matthew M. Montelione, “Patriots against Loyalists on Eastern Long Island, 1775–1776,” Journal of the American Revolution, May 21, 2018.

14. Capt. Lt. Caleb Brewster conducted espionage operations sailing between Connecticut and Long Island (see Brewster to Tallmadge, 27 Aug., enclosed in Tallmadge to GW, 28 August.

15. George Howell of Southampton in eastern Long Island was a double agent operating in Connecticut (see Richard F. Welch, George Washington’s Commando: Benjamin Tallmadge in the Revolutionary War [Jefferson, N.C., 2014], 88).

A transcript of a letter Woodhull wrote Tallmadge from Setauket on 14 Oct. is in Morton Pennypacker, General Washington’s Spies On Long Island and In New York (Brooklyn, 1939), 270. Woodhull noted in that letter: “I am pleased with your intention of apprehending Aiqlai Bqyim” (ibid., 270).

16. See Woodhull to Tallmadge, 14 Oct., in ibid., 270.

17. Woodhull might be referring to Joseph Trowbridge, a Connecticut Loyalist “refugee” on Long Island (see David Bell, American Loyalists to New Brunswick: The Ship Passenger Lists [Halifax, 2015], 67). Trowbridge would be captured commanding a Loyalist privateer by Brewster’s operatives in February 1781 (see Rose, Washington’s Spies, 234–35).

18. John Clark, a Continental army major and reconnaissance specialist, had served as a spy on Long Island in 1777 (see Rose, Washington’s Spies, 46).

19. See Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., to GW, 31 Aug., DLC:GW.

20. A force under Tallmadge would raid Long Island in November to destroy forage and other British supplies (see Memoir of Col. Benjamin Tallmadge, Prepared by Himself, at the Request of his Children [1858; reprint, New York, 1968], 40–42; see also Washington to Tallmadge, 11 Nov., DLC:GW). A transcript of a letter Woodhull wrote Tallmadge from Setauket on 28 Nov. is in Pennypacker, General Washington’s Spies, 271–72. Woodhull noted in that letter: “The burning the forage is agreeable to me and must hurt the enemy much” (ibid., 271).

George Washington and Parades in the Early American Republic

by Dana Stefanelli, Assistant Editor
May 14, 2018

Parades, feasts, and festivals were, in the words of historian Simon Newman, “essential components of early national popular political culture.” In the late eighteenth century, these activities allowed regular Americans to participate in politics to a greater extent than ever before. 1 In the nineteenth century, the public pageantry of parades became a more official and hierarchical (and more white and male) component of political party organization. However, in the 1780s and 1790s, participation in public political celebrations usually included a broad and diverse collection of citizens.

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The Dispersal of George Washington’s Library

By William M. Ferraro, Senior Associate Editor
April 20, 2018

George Washington’s interest in books has attracted increasing scholarly attention. Mount Vernon pulled together a major exhibition in 2013 to mark the opening of the Fred W. Smith National Library for the Study of George Washington.1 Adrienne M. Harrison’s dissertation on Washington’s self-improvement through reading became a book published in 2015.2 Noted literary biographer Kevin J. Hayes has written a study with even greater range and depth. His book is now a finalist for the 2018 George Washington Prize.3 It has taken time for this scholarship to come forward because George Washington’s impressive library scattered after his death, and it was not his habit to muse about or ponder his reading in his diaries or correspondence. Sustained effort has been necessary to overcome the inaccurate perception that Washington had little curiosity and limited literary ability.4

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“One of the Severest Strokes that Could have been Meditated Against Us”: George Washington, Benedict Arnold, West Point, and British Strategy

By Jeffrey L. Zvengrowski, Assistant Editor
April 6, 2018

Benedict Arnold infamously schemed with Maj. John André, the British adjutant general, to help Britain take West Point in 1780. Yet, how did Arnold actually plan to betray the 11 Continental and militia regiments under his command at or near West Point’s fortifications? The British, moreover, had grander goals in mind than capturing West Point on a kind of large-scale raid. Indeed, when George Washington came to West Point on Sept. 25 after discussing strategy with Lieutenant General Rochambeau at Hartford, he not only foiled Arnold’s design but a British gambit to win the war.

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The Most Difficult Days of the Patriot Cause: Examining the Events of Revolutionary War Series Volume 29

By Dana Stefanelli, Assistant Editor
March 16, 2018

Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene, engraving. Image courtesy of New York Public Library.

The winter of 1780-81 was one of the most difficult periods of the American Revolution for the Patriots, though the weather was only indirectly related to the challenges they faced. Coming in the aftermath of American defeats at Savannah, Ga., and Charleston and Camden, S.C., this was undoubtedly a military low point for the Americans. News of Benedict Arnold’s betrayal and suspicions about Ethan Allen’s loyalties raised concerns about popular support for the Patriot cause and the morale of the fighting men. The seeming unlikelihood of the situation improving further dampened spirits. Nothing describes this situation more vividly than the correspondence between Nathanael Greene and George Washington during the late autumn of 1780.

Greene was appointed to replace Gen. Horatio Gates as commander of the southern department after Gates’s defeat at Camden. A skillful general, Greene had earned Washington’s trust and is remembered as one of Washington’s most valued officers. But as he made his way south to assume his new command, the burden of leading a large force of men under such desperate conditions began to weigh heavily on Greene.

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Another Look at Forgotten Biographies of George Washington: Henry Cabot Lodge’s George Washington

by William M. Ferraro, Senior Associate Editor
February 9, 2018

The seemingly endless flow of books on George Washington easily submerges notable past treatments. Bringing these forgotten gems to the surface is a worthwhile endeavor. This contribution to “Washington’s Quill” highlights Henry Cabot Lodge’s George Washington, a two-volume biography published in 1890.

Lodge is best known among historians as the isolationist senator from Massachusetts who frustrated President Woodrow Wilson’s plans for the League of Nations. Decades prior, however, he had gained a reputation as a historical writer and political journalist. He undertook his study of Washington in the mid-1880s for Houghton, Mifflin, and Company’s American Statesmen series after completing volumes on Alexander Hamilton and Daniel Webster.

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Washington and the Governors (Part II)

By Benjamin L. Huggins, Associate Editor
February 2, 2018

Washington faced some of his thorniest fights with state leaders over the deployment of Continental troops. He summed up his problem in a letter to his friend Gouverneur Morris:

When I endeavour to draw together the Continental troops for the most essential purposes I am embarrassed with complaints of the exhausted defenceless situation of particular states and find myself obliged either to resist solicitations made in such a manner and with such a degree of emphasis as scarcely to leave me a choice, or to sacrifice the most obvious principles of military propriety and risk the general safety.1

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Loose Ends: George Washington and “Philip Langfit”

By Jeffrey L. Zvengrowski, Assistant Editor
January 26, 2018

When undertaking research, editors of The Papers of George Washington have occasionally discovered intriguing historical connections that are not included in the annotation. In some cases, the information is omitted because connections cannot be definitively tied together and therefore lack sufficient certitude to warrant inclusion.

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“With a heart full of love and gratitude I now take leave of you”: George Washington’s Farewell Toast

by Lynn Price, Assistant Editor
January 19, 2018

On December 4, 1783, an emotional George Washington, commander in chief of the Continental army, stood before his officers in the Long Room of Fraunces Tavern in New York. The Revolutionary War had ended three months earlier, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, and the United States was an independent nation. On November 25, the remaining British troops had evacuated the last occupied city—New York. At the tavern, fighting back emotions, Washington broke the heavy silence with the raise of his wine glass. “With a heart full of love and gratitude I now take leave of you,” Washington toasted, as his eyes scanned the room. “I most devoutly wish that your latter days may be as prosperous and happy as your former ones have been glorious and honorable. I cannot come to each of you but shall feel obliged if each of you will come and take me by the hand.”1 And with that, the General stepped back and waited for his men to approach him.

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Washington and the Governors (Part I)

By Benjamin L. Huggins, Associate Editor
November 10, 2017

In this blog post I pause my series on Washington’s letters announcing pivotal moments in the Revolutionary War to look at a key facet of his generalship.

“You will, upon the whole, find many advantages by cultivating a good understanding with the Civil Authority”1

On Feb. 3, 1780, Gen. George Washington sent this advice to Col. Stephen Moylan, commander of a Continental dragoon regiment, after issues had arisen with the Connecticut state government regarding the winter encampments of the cavalry in that state. Two weeks later, as the disputes between Moylan and Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., continued, Washington told the colonel, “It is always my wish to accommodate, where no great injury can result to the service.”2

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